European Union and the United Nations

Relationship overview

European Union
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United Nations membership
MembershipObserver (enhanced)
Since1974 (1974) (enhanced: 2011)
Former name(s)European Communities
UNSC seatIneligible
AmbassadorOlof Skoog
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The European Union (EU) has had permanent observer status at the United Nations (UN) since 1974, and has had enhanced participation rights since 2011. The EU itself does not have voting rights but it is represented alongside its 27 members, one of which, France, is a permanent member of the Security Council.

Representation

The EU holds an enhanced observer status at the UN. While normal observers such as the Arab League and the Red Cross are not allowed to speak before Member States at the UN General Assembly, the EU was granted the right to speak among representatives of major groups on 3 May 2011. These include: the right to speak in debates among representatives of major groups, before individual states, to submit proposals and amendments, the right of reply, to raise points of order and to circulate documents. However, the EU does not have voting rights nor the right to sit on the Security Council.[1][2]

The EU is represented by the President of the European Council, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the European Commission and the EU delegations.[3] European Council President Herman Van Rompuy made the EU's inaugural speech to the general assembly on 22 September 2011.[4][5][6] Prior to the granting of its speaking rights, the EU was represented by the state holding the rotating Council presidency.[7]

The EU is party to some 50 international UN agreements as the only non-state participant. It is a full participant on the Commission on Sustainable Development, the Forum on Forests and the Food and Agriculture Organization. It has also been a full participant at certain UN summits, such as the Rio and Kyoto summits on climate change, including hosting a summit. Furthermore, the EU delegation maintains close relations with the UN's aid bodies.[8]

The EU holds its observer membership alongside the full memberships of all its 27 member states, one of which, France, is a veto-holding member of the UN Security Council (UNSC).[7] Furthermore, where the EU has a defined position on a UNSC agenda item, those states shall request the High Representative to be invited to present the EU's position. This however does not impact on the right of those states to form their foreign policy (stated in Declaration 14).[9]

Head of delegation

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (September 2011)
Delegation head Nationality Term
Olof Skoog Swedish December 2019 to present
João Vale de Almeida Portuguese October 2015 to November 2019
Thomas Mayr-Harting[10] Austrian October 2011 to October 2015
Pedro Serrano (acting)[11] Spanish January 2010 to October 2011
Fernando Valenzuela[12] Spanish 2004 to 2009
John Richardson[13] British May 2001 to 2004

Coordination

The EU coordinates its voting within the General Assembly's six main committees and other bodies and agencies such as the Economic and Social Council, UN agencies (such as the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency). To this end, more than 1000 internal EU coordination meetings are held at the UN to develop a common EU stance. Article 19 of the EU treaty also stipulates that EU members on the Security Council must act in concert and foster the interests of the EU.[7] The EU has also spoken with one voice at all major UN conferences held since the 1990s.[14]

Since the beginning of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, coordinating of EU voting has risen from 86% in 1991–92 to 97% in 1998–99. As of 2007, it has remained around this level, with the 2004 acceding countries already voting in line with the EU before they joined.[7] Of the 15–25% of resolutions actually voted on in the General Assembly, the EU votes unanimously on average four-fifths of the time, including on controversial topics such as the Middle East (achieving unanimity on nearly every occasion since the 1990s).[14]

EU cohesion in UN General Assembly votes[14]
Year
91-92
92-93
93-94
94-95
95-96
96-97
97-98
98-99
99-00
00-01
01-02
02-03
EU cohesion 86% 91% 91% 92% 93% 96% 96% 97% 95% 96% 96% 97%
Overall UN cohesion 70% 69% 76% 74% 72% 70% 73% 75% 76% 76% 76% 78%

However, in October 2011, a row between the United Kingdom and its fellow EU members reached a head as the UK had blocked more than 70 EU statements to UN committees. The row was over the wording used; the statements read they were on behalf of the EU, rather than "EU and its member states" as the UK insisted. The UK's actions were intended to stop the perceived drift towards a common EU foreign policy and were insisted upon by British Prime Minister David Cameron and Foreign Secretary William Hague. While purely symbolic, the issue has become a big deal for both sides, although the UK government has been criticised for using valuable political capital and good will on something that will yield, even if successful, no real gain.[15]

When EU member states temporarily serve on the UN Security Council they can promote security interests of other European countries, and they can use their elevated influence to secure side-payments from the EU budget.[16] Consequently, EU members are more successful in bargaining over the EU budget while they hold a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council than they are at other times.[16]

Contribution

Individual member states, and not the EU as a whole, pay dues. The sum of the contributions of EU member states provided 30.4% of the regular UN budget in 2016[17] (this is compared with the US at 22% and Japan at 9.7%).[18] EU member states also collectively provide 33.2%[17] of the funding for UN peacekeeping missions and around half of the budgets for UN funds and programmes. Almost a third of the European Commission's aid budget goes to the UN.[7] EU member states collectively provided 13.5% of peacekeeping personnel (11,140 men and women) in 2006.

The EU also operates its own missions to support the UN, such as the EU mission in the Congo to support the UN peacekeepers there. The EU also established and funds the African Peace Facility.[7]

The EU supports the UN's values of freedom, democracy and human rights. The preamble to the EU's treaty cites the UN Charter's human rights articles and is very active on the UN Human Rights Council. The EU was also instrumental in setting up the system of UN Special Rapporteurs on human rights issues.[7]

History

UN Secretary General António Guterres speaks to the European Parliament in 2021

Western European nations were long reluctant to cooperate within the UN.[19] On 11 October 1974, the UN General Assembly granted observer status to the European Economic Community (EEC) represented by the European Commission representation in New York City. It was the first non-state entity to be granted observer status and gave it participation rights, particularly in the Economic and Social Council: the EEC operated a common commercial policy from very early on and in such matters the European Commission represented the EU, in others the Council presidency did.[8]

Despite being an observer, the EU joined several treaties and gained full participation in a number of UN bodies (see representation above) and in 1991, it was the first non-state body to be a full voting member in a UN agency: the Food and Agriculture Organization. In 2001, it was the first non-state entity to host a summit, the UN Conference of the Least Developed Countries in Brussels, Belgium.[8]

When the EU was created, the EEC was renamed the European Community and made one of the EU's three pillars. The Community, not the EU as a whole, inherited the EEC's international role and thus between 1993 and 2009 the EU was represented as the European Community at the UN. Since December 2009, with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the European Union as a whole has taken on the role and obligations the European Community previously exercised.[20] The European Commission and Council delegations to the UN in New York City have also been merged.[21][22]

Following the enactment of the Lisbon Treaty, the EU proposed to the General Assembly that it receive the same representation rights (but not voting rights) as full members. However, the General Assembly voted down its initial proposal in 2010 due to a bloc led by Australia (who abstained in protest at the speed of the proposal and the assumption it would pass) and another led by the Caribbean Community (demanding the same rights for other regional blocs). After a year of consultations, the EU's resolution was passed with an amendment allowing other regional blocs the same rights:

Following the request on behalf of a regional organisation which has observer status in the general assembly and whose member states have agreed arrangements that allow that organisation's representatives to speak on behalf of the organisation and its member states, then the general assembly may adopt modalities for the participation of that regional organisation's representatives.[1][2]

Future

The EU holds an observer seat on the executive board for funds and programmes, where the European Commission is a big donor and Mark Malloch Brown, former UN deputy secretary general, believes the EU will gradually be represented more and more, starting with the aid departments, eventually leading to the EU taking up a seat on the Security Council.[23]

However the extension of the EU's role at the UN is politically sensitive among some EU members, particularly the United Kingdom during its membership, who did not want to risk reaching a point where they would have had to give up their permanent seat on the Security Council.[1] This is alongside EU member Germany requesting its own Security Council seat,[24] and is vocally backed therein by the UK and France.

See also

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References

  1. ^ a b c "EU reaches out for new powers at United Nations". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  2. ^ a b "EU wins new powers at UN, transforming global body". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  3. ^ "United Nations Official Document". Un.org. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  4. ^ "This WEEK in the European Union". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  5. ^ "At UN, van Rompuy hails EU's global role - Public Service Europe". Archived from the original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  6. ^ "Van Rompuy addresses UN General Assembly". YouTube. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "How the European Union and the United Nations cooperate" (PDF). United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe (UNRIC). Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  8. ^ a b c "[email protected] - Description of the European Union Delegation in New York". Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  9. ^ "Research Briefings - The European Union at the United Nations". Parliament.uk. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  10. ^ "[email protected] - EU HR Ashton appoints new Head of EU Delegation in New York and 24 other Heads of EU Delegations". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  11. ^ "European Union @ United Nations". Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  12. ^ "[email protected] - Biography of Ambassador Valenzuela, Head of Delegation in New York (2004-2009)". Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  13. ^ "JOHN B RICHARDSON".
  14. ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Julian Borger, Diplomatic editor (20 October 2011). "EU anger over British stance on UN statements". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2016. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  16. ^ a b Mikulaschek, Christoph (2018). "Issue linkage across international organizations: Does European countries' temporary membership in the UN Security Council increase their receipts from the EU budget?". Review of International Organizations. 13 (4): 491–518. doi:10.1007/s11558-017-9289-9. S2CID 158905406.
  17. ^ a b "The European Union at the United Nations". EEAS. 16 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  18. ^ Rakesh Dubbudu (13 September 2016). "How much do various countries contribute to the UN Budget?". factly.in. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  19. ^ Norbert Götz. “Western Europeans and Others: The Making of Europe at the United Nations.” Alternatives 33 (2008) 3: 359–381.
  20. ^ "[email protected] - About the EU at the UN". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  21. ^ "EU commission 'embassies' granted new powers". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  22. ^ "[email protected] - About the EU at the UN". Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  23. ^ "EU heading for single UN seat, UN official says". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  24. ^ "German Hopes for Security Council Seat Get Boost | Germany | DW.COM | 15.03.2008". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 1 September 2016.

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union/Part Five: External Action by the Union#Article 220
Official websites
  • European Union @ United Nations: Partnership in Action, Official website of the EU delegation to the UN
  • United Nations in Brussels: Partnering with the European Union, Official website of the UN delegation to the EU
Reports on cooperation
  • Improving Lives: Partnership between the United Nations and the European Union in 2010, United Nations in Brussels
  • Gourlay, Catriona (2009) EU–UN Cooperation in Peacebuilding Partners in Practice? UNIDIR
  • The EU at the UN - Overview, European Union delegation to the UN
  • How the European Union and the United Nations cooperate, United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe
Other documents
  • Resolution A/RES/65/276 adopted by the General Assembly: Participation of the European Union in the work of the United Nations, United Nations 10 May 2011
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