Foreign relations of Hungary

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Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.[1][2] The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade.

Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and member of European Union, the NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011 and the next will be in 2024. In 2015, Hungary was the fifth largest OECD Non-DAC donor of development aid in the world, which represents 0.13% of its Gross National Income. In this regard, Hungary stands before Spain, Israel or Russia.

Hungary's capital city, Budapest is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor.[3] Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organizations as well, including European Institute of Innovation and Technology, European Police College, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Centre for Democratic Transition, Institute of International Education, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Danube Commission and even others.[4]

Since 1989, Hungary's top foreign policy goal was achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Ukraine, Slovakia, and Romania. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the OSCE documents, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on the reunification of divided families, remains among the best in Central and Eastern Europe.

Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungary's foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. During the Communist period, Hungary maintained treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria. It was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first country to withdraw from those organizations. After 1989, Hungary oriented more towards the West, joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.

Meeting of Visegrád Group leaders, plus Germany and France in 2013
United Nations conference in the assembly hall of House of Magnates in the Hungarian Parliament

Overview

As with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. For Hungary, this is a history of more than 400 years of domination by great powers—the Ottomans, the Habsburg dynasty, the Germans during World War II, and the Soviets during the Cold War—and a geography of regional instability and separation from Hungarian minorities living in neighboring countries. Hungary's foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a direct response to these factors. Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungary's most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997. Hungary became a member of NATO in 1999, and a member of the EU in 2004.

Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on the reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern Europe. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955.

The Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams project

This involves Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and was agreed on September 16, 1977 ("Budapest Treaty"). The treaty envisioned a cross-border barrage system between the towns Gabčíkovo, Czechoslovakia and Nagymaros, Hungary. After an intensive campaign, the project became widely hated as a symbol of the old communist regime. In 1989 the Hungarian government decided to suspend it. In its sentence from September 1997, the International Court of Justice stated that both sides breached their obligation and that the 1977 Budapest Treaty is still valid. In 1998 the Slovak government turned to the International Court, demanding the Nagymaros part to be built. The international dispute is still not solved as of 2008.

On March 19, 2008 Hungary recognized Kosovo as an independent country.[5]

Disputes – international: Ongoing Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams dispute with Slovakia

Illicit drugs: Major trans-shipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines

Refugee protection: The hungarian border barrier was built in 2015, and Hungary was criticized by other European countries for using tear gas and water cannons on refugees of the Syrian Civil War as they were trying to pass the country.[6][7]

Since 2017, Hungary–Ukraine relations have rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine.[8][9]

Hungary and Central Asia

A number of Hungarian anthropologists and linguists have long had an interest in the Turkic peoples, fueled by the eastern origin of the Hungarians' ancestors.[10] The Hungarian ethnomusicologist Bence Szabolcsi explained this motivation as follows: "Hungarians are the outermost branch leaning this way from age-old tree of the great Asian musical culture rooted in the souls of a variety of peoples living from China through Central Asia to the Black Sea".[11]

Diplomatic relations

Countries with which Hungary maintains diplomatic relations

List of countries with which Hungary maintains diplomatic relations: Hungary maintains diplomatic relations with all UN member states excluding Armenia, Bhutan and Vanuatu.

# Country Date
1  Austria 1918[12]
2   Switzerland 1918[12]
3  Romania 21 August 1920[13]
4  Norway 12 February 1920[14]
5  Bulgaria 9 August 1920[15]
6  Sweden 12 November 1920[16]
  Holy See 10 August 1920[17][18]
7  France 1920[19]
8  United Kingdom 22 May 1921[20]
9  United States 29 August 1921[21]
10  Poland 17 November 1921[22]
11  Netherlands 1921[23]
12  Serbia 1921[24]
13  Belgium 20 February 1922[25]
14  Albania March 1922[26]
15  Finland 12 April 1922[27]
16  Czech Republic 1922[28]
17  Argentina 1924[12]
18  Luxembourg 1924[12]
19  Mexico 13 January 1926[29]
20  Italy 15 April 1927[30]
21  Chile 1930[12]
22  Russia 6 February 1934[31]
23  Spain December 1944[32]
24  Ecuador September 1946[33]
25  Turkey 23 January 1947[34]
26  Denmark 10 May 1948[35]
27  North Korea 11 November 1948[36]
28  India 18 November 1948[37]
29  Israel 1948[12]
30  China 6 October 1949[38]
31  Vietnam 3 February 1950[39]
32  Mongolia 28 April 1950[40]
33  Iran 1951[12]
34  Bolivia 17 October 1952[41]
35  Egypt 13 October 1954[42]
36  Syria 13 October 1954[42]
37  Indonesia 26 June 1955[43]
38  Iceland 17 July 1955[44]
39  Myanmar 5 March 1956[45]
40  Sudan 7 March 1956[46]
41  Afghanistan 18 May 1956[47]
42  Uruguay 14 June 1956[48]
43  Greece 23 July 1956[49]
44  Tunisia 31 August 1956[42]
45  Iraq 30 August 1958[50]
46  Sri Lanka 15 February 1959[51]
47  Yemen 21 March 1959[52]
48  Japan 29 August 1959[53]
49  Morocco 23 October 1959[54]
50  Ethiopia 17 November 1959[55]
51  Guinea 1959[12]
52  Cuba 15 September 1960[56]
53  Somalia 14 October 1960[57]
54  Cyprus 18 October 1960[58]
55    Nepal 15 January 1961[59]
56  Mali 12 March 1961[60]
57  Brazil 21 March 1961[61]
58  Ghana 29 July 1961[62]
59  Algeria 7 April 1962[63]
60  Benin 18 June 1962[64]
61  Laos 12 September 1962[65]
62  Tanzania 24 November 1962[66]
63  Cambodia 22 July 1963[67]
64  Kuwait 7 May 1964[68]
65  Jordan 16 May 1964[69]
66  Canada 11 June 1964[70]
67  Kenya 1964[12]
68  Nigeria 1964[12]
69  Pakistan 26 February 1965[71]
70  Uganda 23 August 1965[72]
71  Lebanon 1 December 1965[73]
72  Mauritania 1 December 1965[74]
73  Zambia 1966[12]
74  Libya July 1967[75]
75  Burundi 1968[12]
76  Senegal 1968[12]
77  Ivory Coast February 1969[76]
78  Venezuela 30 April 1969[77]
79  Burkina Faso June 1969[78]
80  Sierra Leone 10 November 1969[79]
81  Malaysia 29 December 1969[80]
82  New Zealand 1969[12]
83  Peru 1969[12]
84  Equatorial Guinea February 1970[79]
85  Costa Rica 14 May 1970[41]
86  Singapore 24 August 1970[81]
87  Central African Republic 1970[12]
88  Republic of the Congo 1970[12]
89  Malta 1970[12]
90  Bangladesh 29 February 1972[82]
91  Australia 6 April 1972[83]
92  Gambia 14 June 1972[84]
93  Rwanda 31 July 1972[85]
94  Chad November 1972[86]
95  Niger 3 February 1973[87]
96  Colombia 28 March 1973[88]
97  Democratic Republic of the Congo June 1973[86]
98  Honduras 2 July 1973[41]
99  Philippines 28 September 1973[89]
100  Thailand 24 October 1973[90]
101  Togo October 1973[86]
102  Germany 21 December 1973[91]
103  Guinea-Bissau 1973[12]
104  Portugal 1 July 1974[92]
105  Maldives 24 May 1975[93]
106  Jamaica 2 June 1975[94]
107  Guyana 10 June 1975[95]
108  Panama 5 August 1975[96]
109  Madagascar 1975[12]
110  Mozambique 1975[12]
111  Trinidad and Tobago 7 June 1976[97]
112  Liberia 15 July 1976[98]
113  Fiji 12 August 1976[99]
114  Ireland 1 October 1976[100]
115  Papua New Guinea 15 January 1977[101]
116  Cape Verde February 1977[102]
117  Suriname 7 May 1977[103]
118  Grenada 30 July 1977[104]
119  Nicaragua 1 October 1977[105]
120  Seychelles 24 November 1977[106]
121  Angola 24 December 1977[107]
122  Comoros December 1977[86]
123  Djibouti 1977[12]
124  Sao Tome and Principe 1 November 1978[108]
125  Barbados 8 March 1978[109]
126  Botswana 30 April 1980[110]
127  Zimbabwe 22 December 1980[111]
128  Lesotho 1983[12]
129  Cameroon 21 January 1987[112]
130  Gabon 24 October 1988[99]
 State of Palestine 1988[12]
131  South Korea 1 February 1989[113]
132  United Arab Emirates 1989[12]
133  Bahrain 3 March 1990[114]
134  Namibia 23 March 1990[115]
135  Eswatini 9 May 1990[99]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 15 June 1990[116]
136  Oman 20 June 1990[117]
137  Guatemala 11 October 1990[99]
138  Qatar 18 October 1990[118]
139  Malawi 1990[12]
140  Mauritius 1990[12]
141  Paraguay 2 May 1991[99]
142  San Marino 24 May 1991[119]
143  South Africa July 1991[120]
144  Estonia 2 September 1991[121]
145  Latvia 2 September 1991[122]
146  Lithuania 2 September 1991[123]
147  El Salvador 26 September 1991[99]
148  Ukraine 3 December 1991[124]
149  Moldova 16 January 1992[125]
150  Slovenia 16 January 1992[126]
151  Croatia 18 January 1992[127]
152  Brunei 21 January 1992[99]
153  Belarus 12 February 1992[128]
154  Uzbekistan 3 March 1992[129]
155  Kazakhstan 23 March 1992[130]
156  Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 April 1992[131]
157  Kyrgyzstan 16 April 1992[132]
158  Azerbaijan 27 April 1992[133]
159  Turkmenistan 11 May 1992[134]
160  Georgia 14 May 1992[135]
161  Tajikistan 2 July 1992[136]
162  Slovakia 1 January 1993[137]
163  Eritrea 24 August 1993[138]
164  Liechtenstein 18 September 1993[139]
165  North Macedonia 29 August 1994[140]
166  Andorra 1 March 1995[141]
167  Saudi Arabia 4 April 1995[142]
168  Dominican Republic 7 March 2003[143]
169  East Timor 2003[12]
170  Bahamas 29 April 2005[99]
171  Antigua and Barbuda 16 May 2005[99]
172  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 23 May 2005[144]
173  Belize 10 June 2005[99]
174  Haiti 11 July 2005[99]
175  Saint Lucia 7 October 2005[99]
176  Montenegro 14 June 2006[145]
177  Dominica 2 June 2008[99]
 Kosovo 27 June 2008[146]
178  Saint Kitts and Nevis 11 May 2011[99]
179  Solomon Islands 21 June 2011[147]
180  Tuvalu 11 July 2011[148]
181  Nauru 12 July 2011[99]
182  Samoa 7 September 2011[99]
183  South Sudan 23 September 2011[99]
184  Tonga 23 September 2011[99]
185  Federated States of Micronesia 7 September 2012[99]
186  Monaco 2 May 2016[149]
187  Kiribati 17 June 2016[99]
188  Palau 18 September 2017[150]
189  Marshall Islands 27 September 2019[99]

Relations by region and country

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria
 Angola
  • Angola has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Luanda.
 Cape Verde
  • Cape Verde is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Hungary is accredited to Cape Verde from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal[151][152] and maintains an honorary consulate in Praia.[153]
 Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Hungary from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Ghana (See Ghana–Hungary relations)
  • Ghana is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Accra.
 Guinea-Bissau
  • Guinea-Bissau is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Hungary is accredited to Guinea-Bissau from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.[153]
 Kenya
  • Hungary has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
 Libya
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Budapest.
 Mauritania
  • Hungary is accredited to Mauritania from its embassy in Rabat, Morocco.[154][155]
 Morocco
  • Hungary has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Latifa Akharbach, Morocco's under-secretary of Minister of Foreign Affairs visited Hungary in 2007.
 Nigeria
  • Hungary has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Budapest.
 South Africa
  • Hungary has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Budapest.
 Tunisia
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Budapest.
 Uganda
  • Hungary is represented in Uganda by its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya[154] and an honorary consulate in Kampala.[154]
  • Hungary is realizing the largest foreign development program in its history in Uganda.[156]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina (See Argentina–Hungary relations)
  • Argentina has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Belize
  • Belize does not have an accreditation to Hungary.
  • Hungary does not have an accreditation to Belize.
 Brazil 1927 (See Brazil–Hungary relations)
  • Brazil has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Canada 1964 (See Canada–Hungary relations)
 Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 28 March 1973 (See Colombia–Hungary relations)
  • Colombia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominica
  • Hungary is accredited to Dominica from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.[159][154]
 Ecuador
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Quito.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Hungary is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Honduras
  • Honduras is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Hungary is accredited to Honduras from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Guyana 10 June 1975
  • Guyana does not have accreditation to Hungary.
  • Hungary does not have accreditation to Guyana.
 Mexico 1925 (See Hungary–Mexico relations)

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1864, during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Diplomatic relations were established between Hungary and Mexico in 1925 and were suspended in 1941. They were re-established on 14 May 1974.

 Peru
  • Hungary has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Budapest.
 United States 1922 (See Hungary–United States relations)

Normal bilateral relations between Hungary and the U.S. were resumed in December 1945 when a U.S. ambassador was appointed and the embassy was re-opened.

 Uruguay (See Hungary–Uruguay relations)
  • Hungary is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina and has an embassy office in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
 Venezuela
  • Hungary is accredited to Venezuela from its embassy in Quito, Ecuador.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Budapest.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia

(See Armenia–Hungary relations)

On 31 August 2012, Armenia severed relations with Hungary following the extradition of Ramil Safarov.[164]

 Azerbaijan (See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations)
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Baku.
 China 1949-10-04
  • China has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Hong Kong and Shanghai.
  • Officials from Hungary regularly visit China on trade missions, a factor that helped enabled the buyout of distressed Hungarian chemical maker Borsodchem by the Chinese company Wanhua Industrial Group.[165]
 Georgia 14 May 1992
  • Georgia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tbilisi.
 India (See Hungary–India relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in New Delhi.
  • India has an embassy in Budapest.
 Indonesia 1955 (See Hungary–Indonesia relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Jakarta.[166] opened in Jakarta, the Indonesian capital, in 1957. Hungary has two honorary consuls in Indonesia, one in Bandung, West Java and another in Denpasar, Bali. A third consul will be opened in Surabaya, East Java.[166]
  • Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Hungary Archived 2018-05-13 at the Wayback Machine
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Budapest.[167] and there is a commercial developmental center too.
 Iran 1939
  • Since 1951, Hungary has an embassy in Tehran.[168]
  • Iran has an embassy in Budapest.[169]
  • Hungary is committed to expand cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran.[170]
 Iraq (See Hungary–Kurdistan Region relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Between August 2003 and March 2005, Hungary had contributed to more than 300 soldiers to the Multinational force in Iraq.
 Israel (See Hungary–Israel relations)
 Japan (See Hungary–Japan relations)
  • After World War II, both countries re-established diplomatic relations in August 1959.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tokyo and 2 honorary consulates (in Hamamatsu and Osaka).[173]
  • Japan has an embassy in Budapest.[174]
  • Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 Kazakhstan 1991
  • Hungary has an embassy in Nur-Sultan, and in Almaty.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Budapest.
 Malaysia 1969 (See Hungary–Malaysia relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Malaysia Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Hungary Archived 2009-11-28 at the Wayback Machine
  • Hungary–Malaysia relations on www.kln.gov.my
 Mongolia 1959-05-29
  • Hungary is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing, China and though an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Hungary (in Mongolian only)
 North Korea (See Hungary–North Korea relations)
  • Relations between the two countries existed since the Korean War, but however have evolved into conflicts.
 Pakistan 1965-11-26 (See Hungary–Pakistan relations)
  • Since 1970, Hungary has an embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in Karachi.[175]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Budapest[176]
 Palestine 1988-11-23 (See Hungary–Palestine relations)
  • Hungary has a representative office in Ramallah.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Budapest.
 Saudi Arabia
  • Hungary has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Budapest.
 South Korea 1 February 1989[177] (See Hungary–South Korea relations)

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Hungary and the Republic of Korea began on 1 February 1989.

  • Hungary and South Korea have good relations.
  • Permanent missions between the two countries were announced during the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. The announcement made Hungary the first Eastern Bloc country to exchange ambassadors with South Korea.
  • Hungary has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with South Korea.
  • South Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 Sri Lanka (See Hungary–Sri Lanka relations)

Sri Lanka has an embassy in Vienna, Austria that is accredited to Hungary[180] and has an honorary consulate in Budapest[181] Hungary maintains an honorary consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[182] Hungary contributed to relief after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, and has since stepped up aid to Sri Lanka.[183]

 Thailand 1973-10-24
 Turkey (See Hungary–Turkey relations)
Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848–1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate–general in Istanbul.[188]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Budapest[189] and an honorary consulate in Keszthely.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the OECD, the NATO, the OSCE and the WTO. Also, Hungary is an EU member and Turkey is a candidate. Hungary supports Turkey's accession aims to the EU, although negotiations have now been suspended. Hungary is also an observer nation in the Turkic Council.
  • Both countries have historical ties dating back to the 16th century. Hungary hosts a number of Ottoman-era monuments in cities such as Budapest, Eger, and Pécs.
  • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 United Arab Emirates
  • Hungary has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Budapest.
 Vietnam 1950-02-03 (See Hungary–Vietnam relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Hanoi and an honorary consulate in Ho Chi Minh City.[190]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania (See Albania–Hungary relations)

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tirana.
 Austria (See Austria–Hungary relations)

Austrian-Hungarian relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union. Both countries have a long common history since the ruling dynasty of Austria, the Habsburgs, inherited the Hungarian throne in the 16th century. Both have been part of the now-defunct Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1921, after their separation.

  • Austria has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Vienna and a consulate-general in Innsbruck.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belarus
  • Belarus has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Minsk.
 Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-04-10
  • Hungary recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence on April 9, 1992.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Sarajevo.[193]
 Bulgaria 1920 (See Bulgaria–Hungary relations)
 Croatia (See Croatia–Hungary relations)
  • Croatia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Czech Republic (See Czech Republic–Hungary relations)
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark (See Denmark–Hungary relations)
 Estonia 1924-02-24
  • Estonia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tallinn and two honorary consulates (in Tallinn and Tartu).[196]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 20 May 1947 (See Finland–Hungary relations)
  • Hungary recognised Finland on August 23, 1920. Finland recognised Hungary on September 10, 1920.
  • Finland broke off diplomatic relations on September 20, 1944.
  • Diplomatic relations were re-established on May 20, 1947.
  • Both national languages, Finnish and Hungarian, are Uralic languages, which has led to cultural exchange albeit at a much smaller scale compared to the third major Uralic-speaking country, Estonia.
  • Finland has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Pécs.[197]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Helsinki and four honorary consulates (in Turku, Mariehamn, Tampere and Joensuu).[198]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 France (See France–Hungary relations)
  • France has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Germany (See Germany–Hungary relations)
  • Germany has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Greece (See Greece–Hungary relations)
  • Greece has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Iceland
  • Hungary is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway.
  • Iceland is accredited to Hungary from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Reykjavík and maintains an honorary consulate in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland 1976
 Italy
 Kosovo (See Hungary–Kosovo relations)

Hungary recognized Kosovo on 19 March 2008.[205]

  • Hungary has an embassy in Pristina.[206]
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Budapest.
 Latvia 1921-07-21
  • Diplomatic relations between the two states were renewed on September 2, 1991.
  • Hungary has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Riga.[207]
  • Latvia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 Lithuania
  • Hungary has an embassy in Vilnius and an honorary consulate in Kaunas.[208]
  • Lithuania has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Budapest.[209]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Hungary (in Lithuanian only)
 Luxembourg
 Malta 1964
  • Hungary is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy and through an honorary consulate in Valletta.
  • Malta is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria and through an honorary consulate in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Direction of the Hungarian representations in Malta
  • Direction of the Maltese representations in Hungary
 Moldova
 Montenegro

Hungary recognized Montenegro shortly after their declaration of independence.

  • Hungary has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Budapest.[210]
 Netherlands (See Hungary–Netherlands relations)
 Norway 1920
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1920, but diplomatic representations were set up only in 1947–1948.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Oslo and 2 honorary consulates (in Stavanger and Sarpsborg).[213]
  • Norway has an embassy in Budapest.[214]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland (See Hungary-Poland relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Warsaw, a consulate-general in Kraków and a vice-consulate in Wrocław.
  • Poland has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal 1974-07-01
 Romania 1920 (See Hungary–Romania relations)
 Russia (See Hungary–Russia relations)
 Serbia 1882-11-21 (See Hungary–Serbia relations)
 Slovakia 1993 (See Hungary–Slovakia relations)
 Slovenia
 Spain 1938-01-13 (See Hungary–Spain relations)
 Sweden 1945-12-28 (See Hungary–Sweden relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  Switzerland
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Budapest.
 Ukraine (See Hungary–Ukraine relations)
 United Kingdom 1920 (See Hungary–United Kingdom relations)

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1972
  • Australia is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria and maintains an honorary consulate in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Canberra, a consulate-general in Sydney and four honorary consulate (in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth).[225]
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Hungary
 New Zealand
  • Hungary has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Rome, Italy and maintains an honorary consulate in Budapest.

Foreign criticism

In December 2010, the Fidesz government adopted a press and media law which threatens fines on media that engage in "unbalanced coverage".[226] The law aroused criticism in the European Union as possibly "a direct threat to democracy".[226]

In 2013, the government adopted a new constitution that modified several aspects of the institutional and legal framework in Hungary. These changes have been criticized by the Council of Europe, the European Union and Human Rights Watch as possibly undermining the rule of law and human rights protection.[227]

See also

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Further reading

  • Borhi, László, “In the Power Arena: U.S.-Hungarian Relations, 1942–1989,” The Hungarian Quarterly (Budapest), 51 (Summer 2010), pp 67–81.
  • Glant, Tibor, “Ninety Years of United States-Hungarian Relations,” Eger Journal of American Studies, 13 (2012), pp 163–83.
  • Hornyak, Arpad. Hungarian-Yugoslav Diplomatic Relations, 1918–1927 (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press; 2013) 426 pages.
  • Niklasson, Tomas. "Regime stability and foreign policy change: interaction between domestic and foreign policy in Hungary 1956-1994" (PhD dissertation Lund University, 2006) online.
  • Váli, Ferenc A, "The Foreign Policy of Hungary" in Kuhlman, James A (ed.), The Foreign Policies of Eastern Europe: Domestic and International Determinants (Sijthoff, Leyden, 1978).
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